Search
 
 

Display results as :
 


Rechercher Advanced Search

Navigation
 Portal
 Index
 Memberlist
 Profile
 FAQ
 Search

How Automatic Transmission Work Part 2

View previous topic View next topic Go down

How Automatic Transmission Work Part 2

Post by LhYnxz on Sun Mar 02, 2008 7:16 pm

Automatic Transmission Gears


First Gear
In first gear, the smaller sun gear is driven clockwise by the turbine in the torque converter. The planet carrier tries to spin counterclockwise, but is held still by the one-way clutch (which only allows rotation in the clockwise direction) and the ring gear turns the output. The small gear has 30 teeth and the ring gear has 72, so the gear ratio is:
Ratio = -R/S = - 72/30 = -2.4:1
So the rotation is negative 2.4:1, which means that the output direction would be opposite the input direction. But the output direction is really the same as the input direction -- this is where the trick with the two sets of planets comes in. The first set of planets engages the second set, and the second set turns the ring gear; this combination reverses the direction. You can see that this would also cause the bigger sun gear to spin; but because that clutch is released, the bigger sun gear is free to spin in the opposite direction of the turbine (counterclockwise).






Move the shift lever to see how power is transmitted through the transmission.

Second Gear
This transmission does something really neat in order to get the ratio needed for second gear. It acts like two planetary gearsets connected to each other with a common planet carrier.
The first stage of the planet carrier actually uses the larger sun gear as the ring gear. So the first stage consists of the sun (the smaller sun gear), the planet carrier, and the ring (the larger sun gear).
The input is the small sun gear; the ring gear (large sun gear) is held stationary by the band, and the output is the planet carrier. For this stage, with the sun as input, planet carrier as output, and the ring gear fixed, the formula is:
1 + R/S = 1 + 36/30 = 2.2:1
The planet carrier turns 2.2 times for each rotation of the small sun gear. At the second stage, the planet carrier acts as the input for the second planetary gear set, the larger sun gear (which is held stationary) acts as the sun, and the ring gear acts as the output, so the gear ratio is:
1 / (1 + S/R) = 1 / (1 + 36/72) = 0.67:1
To get the overall reduction for second gear, we multiply the first stage by the second, 2.2 x 0.67, to get a 1.47:1 reduction. This may sound wacky, but it works.






Move the shift lever to see how power is transmitted through the transmission.

Third Gear
Most automatic transmissions have a 1:1 ratio in third gear. You'll remember from the previous section that all we have to do to get a 1:1 output is lock together any two of the three parts of the planetary gear. With the arrangement in this gearset it is even easier -- all we have to do is engage the clutches that lock each of the sun gears to the turbine.
If both sun gears turn in the same direction, the planet gears lockup because they can only spin in opposite directions. This locks the ring gear to the planets and causes everything to spin as a unit, producing a 1:1 ratio.






Move the shift lever to see how power is transmitted through the transmission.

Overdrive
By definition, an overdrive has a faster output speed than input speed. It's a speed increase -- the opposite of a reduction. In this transmission, engaging the overdrive accomplishes two things at once. If you read How Torque Converters Work, you learned about lockup torque converters. In order to improve efficiency, some cars have a mechanism that locks up the torque converter so that the output of the engine goes straight to the transmission.
In this transmission, when overdrive is engaged, a shaft that is attached to the housing of the torque converter (which is bolted to the flywheel of the engine) is connected by clutch to the planet carrier. The small sun gear freewheels, and the larger sun gear is held by the overdrive band. Nothing is connected to the turbine; the only input comes from the converter housing. Let's go back to our chart again, this time with the planet carrier for input, the sun gear fixed and the ring gear for output.
Ratio = 1 / (1 + S/R) = 1 / ( 1 + 36/72) = 0.67:1
So the output spins once for every two-thirds of a rotation of the engine. If the engine is turning at 2000 rotations per minute (RPM), the output speed is 3000 RPM. This allows cars to drive at freeway speed while the engine speed stays nice and slow.






Move the shift lever to see how power is transmitted through the transmission.

Reverse
Reverse is very similar to first gear, except that instead of the small sun gear being driven by the torque converter turbine, the bigger sun gear is driven, and the small one freewheels in the opposite direction. The planet carrier is held by the reverse band to the housing. So, according to our equations from the last page, we have:
Ratio = -R/S = 72/36 = 2.0:1
So the ratio in reverse is a little less than first gear in this transmission.
Gear Ratios
This transmission has four forward gears and one reverse gear. Let's summarize the gear ratios, inputs and outputs:


Gear

Input

Output

Fixed

Gear Ratio

1st

30-tooth sun

72-tooth ring

Planet carrier

2.4:1

2nd

30-tooth sun

Planet carrier

36-tooth ring

2.2:1

Planet carrier

72-tooth ring

36-tooth sun

0.67:1

Total 2nd

1.47:1

3rd

30- and 36-tooth suns

72-tooth ring

1.0:1

OD

Planet carrier

72-tooth ring

36-tooth sun

0.67:1

Reverse

36-tooth sun

72-tooth ring

Planet carrier

-2.0:1

After reading these sections, you are probably wondering how the different inputs get connected and disconnected. This is done by a series of clutches and bands inside the transmission. In the next section, we'll see how these work.

Clutches and Bands in an Automatic Transmission


In the last section, we discussed how each of the gear ratios is created by the transmission. For instance, when we discussed overdrive, we said:
In this transmission, when overdrive is engaged, a shaft that is attached to the housing of the torque converter (which is bolted to the flywheel of the engine) is connected by clutch to the planet carrier. The small sun gear freewheels, and the larger sun gear is held by the overdrive band. Nothing is connected to the turbine; the only input comes from the converter housing.
To get the transmission into overdrive, lots of things have to be connected and disconnected by clutches and bands. The planet carrier gets connected to the torque converter housing by a clutch. The small sun gets disconnected from the turbine by a clutch so that it can freewheel. The big sun gear is held to the housing by a band so that it could not rotate. Each gear shift triggers a series of events like these, with different clutches and bands engaging and disengaging. Let's take a look at a band.
Bands
In this transmission there are two bands. The bands in a transmission are, literally, steel bands that wrap around sections of the gear train and connect to the housing. They are actuated by hydraulic cylinders inside the case of the transmission.

One of the bands
In the figure above, you can see one of the bands in the housing of the transmission. The gear train is removed. The metal rod is connected to the piston, which actuates the band.

The pistons that actuate the bands are visible here.
Above you can see the two pistons that actuate the bands. Hydraulic pressure, routed into the cylinder by a set of valves, causes the pistons to push on the bands, locking that part of the gear train to the housing.
The clutches in the transmission are a little more complex. In this transmission there are four clutches. Each clutch is actuated by pressurized hydraulic fluid that enters a piston inside the clutch. Springs make sure that the clutch releases when the pressure is reduced. Below you can see the piston and the clutch drum. Notice the rubber seal on the piston -- this is one of the components that is replaced when your transmission gets rebuilt.

One of the clutches in a transmission
The next figure shows the alternating layers of clutch friction material and steel plates. The friction material is splined on the inside, where it locks to one of the gears. The steel plate is splined on the outside, where it locks to the clutch housing. These clutch plates are also replaced when the transmission is rebuilt.

The clutch plates
The pressure for the clutches is fed through passageways in the shafts. The hydraulic system controls which clutches and bands are energized at any given moment.

When You Put the Car in Park


It may seem like a simple thing to lock the transmission and keep it from spinning; but there are actually some complex requirements for this mechanism:


  • You have to be able to disengage it when the car is on a hill (the weight of the car is resting on the mechanism).
  • You have to be able to engage the mechanism even if the lever does not line up with the gear.
  • Once engaged, something has to prevent the lever from popping up and disengaging.


The mechanism that does all this is pretty neat. Let's look at some of the parts first.

The output of the transmission: The square notches are engaged by the parking-brake mechanism to hold the car still.
The parking-brake mechanism engages the teeth on the output to hold the car still. This is the section of the transmission that hooks up to the drive shaft -- so if this part can't spin, the car can't move.

The empty housing of the transmission with the parking brake mechanism poking through, as it does when the car is in park
Above you see the parking mechanism protruding into the housing where the gears are located. Notice that it has tapered sides. This helps to disengage the parking brake when you are parked on a hill -- the force from the weight of the car helps to push the parking mechanism out of place because of the angle of the taper.

This rod actuates the park mechanism.
This rod is connected to a cable that is operated by the shift lever in your car.

Top view of the park mechanism
When the shift lever is placed in park, the rod pushes the spring against the small tapered bushing. If the park mechanism is lined up so that it can drop into one of the notches in the output gear section, the tapered bushing will push the mechanism down. If the mechanism is lined up on one of the high spots on the output, then the spring will push on the tapered bushing, but the lever will not lock into place until the car rolls a little and the teeth line up properly. This is why sometimes your car moves a little bit after you put it in park and release the brake pedal -- it has to roll a little for the teeth to line up to where the parking mechanism can drop into place.
Once the car is safely in park, the bushing holds down the lever so that the car will not pop out of park if it is on a hill.

LhYnxz
Site Administrator
Site Administrator

Number of posts : 485
Age : 37
Location : Bayamon, PR
Reputation : 0
Points : 30
Registration date : 2007-12-01

View user profile http://www.vwfusioncrew.net

Back to top Go down

View previous topic View next topic Back to top

- Similar topics

 
Permissions in this forum:
You cannot reply to topics in this forum