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How Automatic Transmissions Work

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How Automatic Transmissions Work

Post by LhYnxz on Sun Mar 02, 2008 7:14 pm

If you have ever driven a car with an automatic transmission, then you know that there are two big differences between an automatic transmission and a manual transmission:

  • There is no clutch pedal in an automatic transmission car.
  • There is no gear shift in an automatic transmission car. Once you put the transmission into drive, everything else is automatic.
Both the automatic transmission (plus its torque converter) and a manual transmission (with its clutch) accomplish exactly the same thing, but they do it in totally different ways. It turns out that the way an automatic transmission does it is absolutely amazing!



Location of the automatic transmission.
In this article, we'll work our way through an automatic transmission. We'll start with the key to the whole system: planetary gearsets. Then we'll see how the transmission is put together, learn how the controls work and discuss some of the intricacies involved in controlling a transmission.
Just like that of a manual transmission, the automatic transmission's primary job is to allow the engine to operate in its narrow range of speeds while providing a wide range of output speeds.


Photo courtesy DaimlerChrysler
Mercedes-Benz CLK, automatic transmission, cut-away model
Without a transmission, cars would be limited to one gear ratio, and that ratio would have to be selected to allow the car to travel at the desired top speed. If you wanted a top speed of 80 mph, then the gear ratio would be similar to third gear in most manual transmission cars.
You've probably never tried driving a manual transmission car using only third gear. If you did, you'd quickly find out that you had almost no acceleration when starting out, and at high speeds, the engine would be screaming along near the red-line. A car like this would wear out very quickly and would be nearly undriveable.
So the transmission uses gears to make more effective use of the engine's torque, and to keep the engine operating at an appropriate speed.
The key difference between a manual and an automatic transmission is that the manual transmission locks and unlocks different sets of gears to the output shaft to achieve the various gear ratios, while in an automatic transmission, the same set of gears produces all of the different gear ratios. The planetary gearset is the device that makes this possible in an automatic transmission.
Let's take a look at how the planetary gearset works.


Planetary Gearsets & Gear Ratios


When you take apart and look inside an automatic transmission, you find a huge assortment of parts in a fairly small space. Among other things, you see:

  • An ingenious planetary gearset
  • A set of bands to lock parts of a gearset
  • A set of three wet-plate clutches to lock other parts of the gearset
  • An incredibly odd hydraulic system that controls the clutches and bands
  • A large gear pump to move transmission fluid around

The center of attention is the planetary gearset. About the size of a cantaloupe, this one part creates all of the different gear ratios that the transmission can produce. Everything else in the transmission is there to help the planetary gearset do its thing. This amazing piece of gearing has appeared on HowStuffWorks before. You may recognize it from the electric screwdriver article. An automatic transmission contains two complete planetary gearsets folded together into one component.

From left to right: the ring gear, planet carrier, and two sun gears
Any planetary gearset has three main components:

  • The sun gear
  • The planet gears and the planet gears' carrier
  • The ring gear

Each of these three components can be the input, the output or can be held stationary. Choosing which piece plays which role determines the gear ratio for the gearset. Let's take a look at a single planetary gearset.
One of the planetary gearsets from our transmission has a ring gear with 72 teeth and a sun gear with 30 teeth. We can get lots of different gear ratios out of this gearset.

Input

Output

Stationary

Calculation

Gear Ratio

A

Sun (S)

Planet Carrier (C)

Ring (R)

1 + R/S

3.4:1

B

Planet Carrier (C)

Ring (R)

Sun (S)

1 / (1 + S/R)

0.71:1

C

Sun (S)

Ring (R)

Planet Carrier (C)

-R/S

-2.4:1
Also, locking any two of the three components together will lock up the whole device at a 1:1 gear reduction. Notice that the first gear ratio listed above is a reduction -- the output speed is slower than the input speed. The second is an overdrive -- the output speed is faster than the input speed. The last is a reduction again, but the output direction is reversed. There are several other ratios that can be gotten out of this planetary gear set, but these are the ones that are relevant to our automatic transmission. You can try these out in the animation below:






Animation of the different gear ratios related to automatic transmissions
Click on the buttons on the left in the table above.


So this one set of gears can produce all of these different gear ratios without having to engage or disengage any other gears. With two of these gearsets in a row, we can get the four forward gears and one reverse gear our transmission needs. We'll put the two sets of gears together in the next section.

Compound Planetary Gearset

This automatic transmission uses a set of gears, called a compound planetary gearset, that looks like a single planetary gearset but actually behaves like two planetary gearsets combined. It has one ring gear that is always the output of the transmission, but it has two sun gears and two sets of planets.
Let's look at some of the parts:

How the gears in the transmission are put together
Left to right: the ring gear, planet carrier, and two sun gears

The figure below shows the planets in the planet carrier. Notice how the planet on the right sits lower than the planet on the left. The planet on the right does not engage the ring gear -- it engages the other planet. Only the planet on the left engages the ring gear.

Planet carrier: Note the two sets of planets.
Next you can see the inside of the planet carrier. The shorter gears are engaged only by the smaller sun gear. The longer planets are engaged by the bigger sun gear and by the smaller planets.

Inside the planet carrier: Note the two sets of planets.
The animation below shows how all of the parts are hooked up in a transmission.






Move the shift lever to see how power is transmitted through the transmission.

LhYnxz
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