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Welcome to the MK4 1.8T Tuning Section Part 1

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Welcome to the MK4 1.8T Tuning Section Part 1

Post by LhYnxz on Sat Dec 01, 2007 9:53 pm

+ In this section, we will learn about the basics of a 1.8T 20V 4 Cyl Engine. After reading the basics, you can learn about popular modifications done to this motor. These modifications are divided into 6 sections: 4 for extracting power, 1 for handling, 1 for weight reduction. Enjoy!

• 1.8T Engine Cutaway


• Basic Engine Information:

Category: Spec
Type:Four cylinder inline, turbo charged, charge air intercooling
Bore: 3.18 in. (81 mm)
Stroke: 3.40 in. (86.4 mm)
Displacement: 1.8 liters - 107 cu. in.
Cylinder block: Cast Iron
Crankshaft: Forged Steel, 4 main bearings
Cylinder head:Aluminum alloy
Valve Train:DOHC, belt driven, hydraulic lifters
Firing Order:1-3-4-2 (Cylinder 1 is by the timing belt)
Cooling System:Water-cooled, thermostatically controlled radiator fan
Fuel/Ignition System:Electronic multi-point sequential fuel injection, hot film air mass sensor, solid state direct ignition with multiple coils, dual knock sensors w/cylinder selective knock control and fully adaptive controls.
Emission System:Dual 3-way catalytic converters w/individual oxygen sensors

• Modification Guide:



+ Stage 0: Free / Budget Modding


+ Looking forward to modding your dub but don't have the $$$ ? Don't worry, there are a few things you can do to get a little more out of your car. Most of the following mods can be done yourself, a repair manual (i.e Bentley) would be a good reference tool.

• Smoothing out the airbox
: Free
Description:
The stock airbox has a rather restrictive path for the air traveling through. This is due to the many "notches" inside of the airbox. This mod involves "smoothing" out the inside of the box to increase flow.

+ Optional: Replace stock air filter with aftermarket (i.e K&N)




• Vent the stock intercooler:
~$10
Description:
The stock intercooler is prone to heat soak especially during warm weather. This heat soak dramatically decreases intercooler efficiency due to higher than ambient air temperatures. To battle heatsoak, you may "vent" the hot air traveling through the IC area to the passenger side fender.






• Diode Mod: ~$5
Description:
Want to increase the boost of your stock 1.8t? It is generally recommended to reflash your ECU, however, if you are going to use a boost controller, you must perform the diode mod. The diode(s) "tricks" the ECU into thinking it is only making xx PSI instead of seeing what the turbo is actually making. This will prevent the ECU from putting the car into Limp Mode (restricted boost).



• Replace stock dogmount bushings
: ~$5
Description:
The stock rubber bushings inside of the dogmount mounts are very soft. Although this equals a very smooth ride, wheel-hop is common when accelerating. This mod involves replacing the stock rubber bushings with heavy duty bushings.

+ Note: May increase cabin vibrations




• Cranked Wastegate:
Free
Description:
A wastegate is a valve that diverts exhaust gases away from the turbine. The primary function of the wastegate is to stabilize boost pressure to protect the engine and the turbocharger. A flapper valve is connected to a rod that will cause it to open as you build boost. This mod involves "cranking" the rod away from the actuator so you will have higher boost spikes / quicker spool.





+ Stage 1: Bolt-Ons

+ Ready to get the most out of your car? Stage 1 is a huge improvement over stock. Most of the following mods can be done yourself, a repair manual (i.e Bentley) would be a good reference tool.

• Reflash your ECU:
~$350-600
Description:
Flashing or "chipping" your stock computer will give you more aggressive timing as well as more boost, which equals much more HP/TQ. Most programming will offer approx. 25-45+ hp and approx. 50-75+ ft-lbs of torque gained.

• Aftermarket Diverter Valve : ~$100-150
Description:
Diverter valves are prone to failing because of the increased boost after chipping. 710N DVs are rumored to last longer, however, an aftermarket DV is always a good precautionary mod.





• Downpipe: ~$100-500
Description:
The factory downpipe is very restrictive and should be replaced with a larger, better flowing unit. 2.5 or 3 inch downpipes can be used. 3 inch systems shift the powerband up while 2.5 inch retain a mostly stock band.

+ Note:
Catless downpipes are available. You may receive a CEL caused by the altered exhaust.






• Catback:
~$200-600
Description:
The factory catback (55mm) is also restrictive and should be replaced with a larger, better flowing unit. 2.5 or 3 inch catbacks can be used. 3 inch systems shift the powerband up while 2.5 inch retain a mostly stock band. Custom catbacks are a viable option.

+ Note:
A Turboback is a combo. of a DP + Catback





• Intake:
~$100
Description:
Replacing the factory airbox with an aftermarket intake is a very controversial mod. Aftermarket intakes lower air intake temps, and will usually produce the popular "pssh" sound.





• Boost Gauge:
~$100-200
Description:
To avoid severe engine damage when increasing boost levels, an aftermarket boost gauge is mandatory. Boost gauges can also display vacuum / leaks.




+ Stage 2: Other Parts

+ After obtaining a good amount of power from Stage 1, let's retain that power and add other popular mods. Most of the following mods can be done yourself, a repair manual (i.e Bentley) would be a good reference tool.

• Larger Intercooler:
~$400-1000+
Description:
The stock side mount intercooler will not be able to cool the amount of air flow needed at this point. Heat soak is common. Thus, it will need to be swapped out for a Front Mount Intercooler or larger SMIC with better cooling characteristics.

+ Note:
Trimming of the bumper/rebar may be required for some intercoolers.





• Tuning Software :
Free
Description:
Revo offers Lemmiwinks, a program that allows you to modify ECU settings such as Idle RPM, Ignition timing etc. Before you can safely begin making fuel adjustments, you'll need to know what's going on inside the engine. Logging software (such as VAG-COM) will give you this data and will help you decide what fuel delivery changes are needed.


• Water/Methanol Injection:
~$350+
Description:
Water/ Methanol Injection is a process by which a mixture of water and Methanol are injected into the fuel/air mixture on the way to the combustion chamber. Water/Methanol Injection provides "Chemical Intercooling" inside the cylinder. By injecting water and methanol in a finely atomized spray, the water is able to evaporate under the high temps of a firing cylinder, and when the water evaporates, it takes heat with it. The methanol also has a cooling and octane boosting effect as it burns.

+ Note:
Adjusting your software is recommended to take advantage of W/M Injection



• Turbo Inlet Pipe:
~$200
Description:
The stock turbo inlet pipe is restrictive according to some, advertised gains: quicker spool, more HP in the upper RPM.

+ Note: Complete TIP recommended (as opposed to only replacing the lower metal section)






• Performance Clutch/Flywheel:
~$350+
Description:
With more power on tap, the stock clutch probably won't last that long (depending on how you drive Very Happy). It will eventually start to slip, especially in the higher gears. This means it's time for a high performance clutch that can handle the increased horsepower. Lighter flywheels can help your engine rev quicker.







• Dogbone mount kit:
~$30-100
Description:
The stock rubber bushings inside of the dogmount mounts are very soft. Although this equals a very smooth ride, wheel-hop is common when accelerating. This mod involves replacing the stock rubber bushings with heavy duty inserts.

+ Note: May increase cabin vibrations



+ Stage 3: Medium Turbos

+ Tired of the KO3s? Let's move on to medium sized turbos to extract even more power out of the 1.8T.

• BorgWarner K04-001:
~$800-2000+
Parts Needed: Complete Kits / Dynos
- 380cc injectors
- K04 software
- 4 Bar FPR VAG Part# 078133534C (for APR, REVO)
- 3 inch MAF (for GIAC )

+ Approx HP: 240-250+ HP / 275+ TQ





• BorgWarner K04-020 :
~$1300-2800+
Parts Needed:
- 380cc injectors
- Exhaust Manifold (Audi TT225 or equiv.)
- Downpipe (Audi TT225 or equiv.)
- K04 software
- VR6 or TT225 MAF housing (2.75" depending on software)
- Audi TT225 TIP or custom TIP
- Charge pipes
- Oil and coolant lines

+ Approx HP: 270-280+ HP / 290+ TQ





• T3 Super 60: ~$1000-2600
Parts Needed:
- 440cc injectors
- ATP T3 Style manifold
- Downpipe
- Wastegate
- Software
- Custom TIP
- Charge pipes
- Oil lines

+ Approx HP: 300-350 HP / 310+ TQ



LhYnxz
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Welcome to the MK4 1.8T Tuning Section Part 2

Post by LhYnxz on Sat Dec 01, 2007 9:53 pm



+ Stage 4: Big Turbos


+ Ready to play with the big boys? Let's move on to big turbos to extract the most power out of the 1.8T. This section's style is going to be different when compared to the other sections, basically it will provide a list of parts you need, provide some background information on general BT setups, and then focus on turbo specifications. Many thanks to CZVDUB who helped complete this section.


• Turbo nomenclature:
Terms: What does it mean?
1) Wheel trim
1a) Trim is a term used to express the relationship between the inducer and exducer of both turbine and compressor wheels. It is an area ratio of the turbo. The trim ratio is equal to: (inducer^2 / exducer^2) * 100
Illustration

2) A/R (area / radius)
2a) The A/R describes the relationship between the area of the intake (where fresh air enters) and the radius of the turbo compressor/turbine wheel.
Illustration

Larger A/R means more flow at the expense of more turbo lag. Basically, more top end at the expense of low end spool.

3) Log vs Tubular manifold
3a) Cast log manifolds are typical on OEM setups. They are usually dedicated to one type of turbo setup. Tubular manifolds are usually seen on serious race setups because they allow maximum flow with equal tube lengths. They are usually custom

4) Air / fuel ratio
4a) The A/F ratio defines the amount of air consumed by the engine compared to the amount of fuel. Proper A/F tuning is crucial to guarantee long engine life as well as promote better performance. Leaner setups result in higher combustion temperatures which means more power, but at the expense of higher EGT (exhaust gas temps) as well as a higher likelihood of knocking (bad!). Richer setups less prone to knock.

Thus, tuning the A/F between too lean / too rich is very important to ensure RELIABLE power.

5) Compressor Map
5a) A compressor map graphs a turbo’s performance characteristics, including efficiency, mass flow range, boost pressure capability, and turbo speed.


Big Turbo parts list:
Required parts:
- New turbo: ~$1100+
- Exhaust manifold: ~$500
- Uprated fuel pump (i.e Walbro): ~$150
- Downpipe (some come with manifold as a kit): ~$175- 400
- Turbo Inlet (may be included in a kit): ~$150
- New exhaust manifold gasket: < $100
- (4) M10x1.5mm bolts for mounting turbo to manifold (On the ATP T25 flange manifold for internal wastegate turbos the bolts are 8X1.25mm)
- Correct chip tuning (i.e Revo, Unitronic BT) or standalone (dyno tune recommended): ~$700
- Appropriate sized Fuel pressure regulator: ~$150+
- Correct Injectors (guide below): ~$275
+ 440cc: 330whp max
+ 580cc: 380whp max
+ 630cc: 430whp max
+ 750cc: 500whp max


300-500 WHP: New Connecting rods:
+ Integrated Engineering
+ Pauter

Limited slip differential:
+ With much more power on tap, putting it down will be a problem. LSDs ensure that torque will be transmitted to both wheels, even if one is slipping. This will reduce the likelihood that only one wheel will spin while your vehicle remains stationary. Benefits: better acceleration, better track times, etc.
- Quaife LSDs
- Peloquin LSDs


• Purchase a complete kit or go custom?
Advantages of a kit such as APR's :
- You are getting a genuine product that has been engineered to work in your car and work at roughly the same OEM specs.
- You will receive all parts needed for the install, as well as software and the backing of a company (including warranty).
- APR video

Disadvantages of a kit such as APR's : Disadvantages of piecing together a custom kit:
- Usually more expensive than custom kits
- Limited options


Advantages of piecing together a custom kit:
- Usually cheaper than most kits.
- More options (i.e turbo)
- More enjoyable to some
- No company backing or support
- May have to deal with unforseen problems
- Limited software tuners




+ Stage 5: Weight Reduction


+ Reducing weight in your car will greatly improve your performance. Take this stage as far as you feel necessary.

• Free weight reduction
Part:
- Rear trunk cover
- Larger seat cushion
- Smaller seat cushion
- Larger seat back
- Smaller seat back
- Spare tire
- Tools, etc








• Weight reduction products

Part:
- Lightweight wheels
- Carbon Fiber hood
- Lightweight Battery / Racing Seat




+ Stage 6: Handling

+ In this stage we will stiffen up the MK4 and prepare it for better handling performance.


• Tires:
~$400+
Description:
Tires affect the grip more than anything else. Good tires will greatly enhance traction and handling.







• Suspension:
~$600-1300+
Description:
The stock MK4 suspension rides pretty smooth thanks to its soft suspension rates, however, this is not the greatest characteristic for performance. Cupkits (matched shocks/springs) / Coilovers (adjustable suspension) will provide a much stiffer setup as well as less body roll when compared to stock, however, they alter the suspension geometry. Revised spindles, such as H2sports will fix the geometry & is highly recommended.

"Cup Kits" are generally a matching pair of springs and shocks, used for lowering the car a modest amount, while not sacrificing ride comfort. "Coilovers" are special-tuned matching pairs of springs and shocks, not only used for lowering the car to a desirable height, but sometimes allowing dampening adjustment, giving the driver the ultimate advantage on the track.







• Sway Bars:
~$200-300 each
Description:
Rear Sway Bar (RSB): A RSB provides more roll-resistance as well as makes the car feel more neutral by eliminating some understeer. RSBs come in different sizes but in general a 32mm RSB will be stiffer than a 28mm RSB. Many RSBs have adjustable stiffness.

A front sway bar (FSB) is generally recommended when lowering the car over 2 inches (to eliminate rubbing).


LhYnxz
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Number of posts : 485
Age : 37
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